Improving Access to Stable, Permanent Housing for New Yorkers with Criminal Justice Histories

The high prevalence of mental health disorders in prisons and jails, the record numbers in our homeless shelters, and growing concerns over the predatory, unsafe three-quarter house industry demand that New York take a hard look at how it addresses the needs of people with a history of incarceration.Returning Home Ohio

For the third consecutive year, CSH has worked with several partner organizations representing housing, mental health, and legal services providers, academia and advocacy groups to focus on solutions that emphasize housing and services to keep people away from a destructive cycle moving them from incarceration into homelessness and then back to jail or prison.

This year, 17 organizations joined CSH to co-author recommendations that touch on improving access to supportive, affordable, public, and market rate housing for individuals leaving incarceration. Our efforts aim to:

  • Ensure people with criminal justice histories are considered for new City & State supportive housing resources;
  • Remove blanket bans keeping people with justice histories from accessing public, affordable, and market rate housing; and
  • Reduce and eventually end reliance on shelters and three-quarter houses.

If adopted, the policy reforms in this document would:

  • End the practice of relying on unstable and unsafe housing;
  • Improve access to supportive and other affordable housing for persons with mental health and substance use disorders; and
  • Reduce recidivism and improve public safety.

Implementation of these recommendations will mean thousands of New Yorkers will find stable and safe housing, reconnect with their families, transform their lives and avoid recidivism, which makes all of us safer.

Read the recommendations by clicking here.

Castle Gardens

Castle Gardens is home to formerly incarcerated homeless individuals with special needs or have someone in their family that meets those criteria. At Castle Gardens residents can access counseling, substance abuse treatment, and financial planning skills among other services. Additionally, this building is a certified “Green” building based on LEED Gold Standards.

Request for Proposals: Independent Evaluator for Just In Reach Pay for Success – Due 10/28


CSH and the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (DHS), in partnership with the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department (LASD) and the County CEO’s Office, are launching the first Pay for Success (PFS) initiative in the County – JIR PFS. With support from the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Department of Justice (DOJ) Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) Demonstration initiative, CSH is seeking a qualified independent evaluator for JIR PFS.

Over a five year period, JIR PFS will create 300 supportive housing “slots” for homeless, frequently incarcerated individuals in LA County Jail. The initiative will target the most vulnerable individuals in LA County jails – high cost users of public systems who are homeless and frequently incarcerated – and connect them with supportive housing and comprehensive wrap-around supportive services. JIR PFS’s program design includes in-reach supportive services, coordinated discharge, interim and permanent supportive housing placement, move-in assistance, and ongoing case management for individuals who are homeless and within the LA County criminal justice system. JIR service providers will receive referrals from a variety of touch points within the LA County criminal justice systems, including but not limited to the jail mental health clinicians, jail medical staff, and alternative sentencing courts.

JIR PFS will be evaluated for two purposes: (1) verifying outcomes tied to payments made to investors (i.e., housing stability and recidivism) and (2) estimating the broader impact of JIR PFS on individuals’ use of a spectrum of publicly-funded services. The appropriate subcontractor will be able to assist with various items, including:

  • Design an evaluation methodology
  • Identify all data inputs required to track
  • Determine outcome measures for the PFS project
  • Work with the PFS intermediary (CSH) to verify calculations about the amount of money to be paid back to investors based on the number of successful outcomes, per agreements with investors
  • Participate in quarterly Steering Committee and occasional monthly Operating Committee meetings
  • Develop a timeline and plan for data collection and reporting out

The subcontractor’s work will mainly comprise of the following:

Evaluation Design
The subcontractor and CSH will work closely together to ensure that the evaluation design is compatible with the program design and the plan for service delivery. The evaluation will answer the following questions:

  1. Were housing stability and recidivism performance goals sufficiently met to trigger payments to investors?
  2. Does supportive housing increase housing stability measures while decreasing the utilization of high-cost public services?

Broader Impact Analysis
The subcontractor will conduct a broader impact analysis of the impact of PSH on the utilization of a spectrum of publically funded health, public health, mental health, social, and criminal justice services and the associated costs of those services. Though the findings will not be tied to success measures and payments, this broader analysis will determine whether the results of the intervention result in significant costs savings. 

Ensuring Data Security
The subcontractor will work with CSH to ensure proper data sharing and storing procedures. Prior to commencing the evaluation, the subcontractor will be responsible for developing a process to match service records for individuals across different department datasets without identifying the individual personal records or information. The subcontractor will also be responsible for ensuring safe transfer of information between various partners.

Subcontractor and CSH coordination
The subcontractor and CSH will work closely together to merge the expertise of each organization in order to ensure that the evaluation is conducted in the most comprehensive, complete, and secure manner possible. Coordination will occur via in-person meetings, e-mail, and phone.

Milestones and Deliverables: 

  • The selected evaluator will provide an evaluation plan that includes a methodological approach to evaluating the Just in Reach Pay for Success project, and a data collection plan that will include a description of procedures to collect the data necessary for evaluation of the project.
  • The selected evaluator will conduct 7 data pulls that combine LASD, HMIS data, and DHS administrative data (July 2018 to July 2021) for the purposes of determining the amount of money to be paid back to investors.
  • The selected evaluator will conduct 2 data pulls from the Enterprise Linkage Project:
    • The first data pull will occur two years into the project (July 1, 2019). Potential deliverables from first data pull include:
      1. Description of program participants, their pre-program utilization rates and costs (no comparison group analyses)
      2. Description of “early” findings using subsample of 150 participants that have been enrolled more than 12 months; examine pre- and post-housing service utilization and costs for the 150 participants that have been enrolled at least 12 months
      3. Compare 150 participants to a comparison group on service utilization and costs
    • The second data pull will occur four years into the project (July 1, 2021) for the purposes of conducting the broader impact analysis detailed above. Potential deliverables from the second data pull include:
      1. Examine service utilization and costs for 300 treatment individuals (and a comparison group) from 24 months pre-program to July 2021
    • Attend quarterly Steering Committee and occasional monthly Operating Committee meetings and prepare presentations/materials for investors and other stakeholders.

Funding Available:
An amount not to exceed $400,000 is available for this project.

Application Process:
In order for consideration to become a subcontractor and participate in this work, we will need you to complete and return the below application and forms no later than Friday, October 28, 2016.

You may include up to 6 staff members in the application. The following forms are included:

All of the application information and forms must be completed and submitted to Tom Haskin (tom.haskin@csh.org) no later than Friday, October 28, 2016 in order to be considered. This information includes proposed billing rates, proposed project budget information, completed copies of the forms referenced above, resumes for up to six proposed staff members, and a narrative description (limited to 5 pages) of your organization’s core competencies and accomplishments.

CSH will evaluate applications utilizing the following criteria and will select the highest-scoring valid proposal: 

  • Demonstrated successful performance of substantially similar work (up to 20 points);
  • Relevant project work, including Pay for Success project work (up to 25 points);
  • Experience and expertise, including 1) experience with the Enterprise Linkages Project (ELP) integrated data system in Los Angeles County, 2) familiarity with evaluating homeless programs and supportive housing projects, and
  • expertise in cross-system data matching to measure service utilization for homeless clients (up to 25 points);
  • Years of relevant experience (up to 10 points);
  • Rate reasonableness and overall cost of services (up to 10 points); and
  • Proximity to and knowledge of Los Angeles (up to 10 points)

We will contact you regarding the determination of adding you as a CSH subcontractor. Please note that CSH requires subcontractors, including individuals and sole proprietors, to carry workers’ compensation insurance while performing work under a CSH subcontract.

If you have any questions, please feel free to e-mail Danielle Wildkress at Danielle.Wildkress@csh.org.

Public Housing Authorities – A Vital Partner in Supportive Housing

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) recently released “It Starts with Housing: Public Housing Agencies are Making Second Chances Real,” which provides guidance for engaging Public Housing Authorities (PHA’s) to help prospective supportive housing tenants who have been involved with the criminal justice system. darren (2)

In addition to offering valuable housing resources for individuals and families with extremely low-incomes, PHA’s are great partners in creating supportive housing. Progress on making their application criteria fairer for the criminal justice-involved is an important step toward additional opportunities for partnerships.

People who are vulnerable and experience long-term periods of homelessness often find themselves cycling through many institutions, including jails and prisons. This costs society on many levels and can trap people in a downward spiral of despair. Promising results show that supportive housing can break this cycle with stable housing and services, and make our communities safer. That’s why it’s important for PHA’s to embrace supportive housing that offers people a real chance to rebuild their lives.

CSH applauds and works with PHA’s that are acting to reduce barriers to housing.

In addition to the case studies highlighted in this report (Seattle, WA, New York, NY and Burlington, VT), Housing Authorities in the state of Ohio have begun exploring these issues collectively.

Learn more about Ohio’s statewide housing summit on reducing barriers for those with criminal justice involvement.

JeffFor more information on how housing authorities can partner to create supportive housing, check out our PHA resources, including a supportive housing toolkit for PHA’s  or contact us at consulting@csh.org.

Ending Youth Homelessness in Minnesota

As communities focus on ending youth homelessness by 2020, it is essential strategies are developed to increase supported opportunities to get youth off the streets and out of shelters while going upstream, partnering with child welfare, education and juvenile justice systems to identify risk factors of and the entry points into homelessness. The intersection of the juvenile justice and child welfare system and youth homelessness are particularly complex but an aspect being tackled both at the local and national levels.youth TAY

In Minnesota there are ongoing efforts within the juvenile justice and the homelessness systems to raise awareness. Nonetheless, there still exists a need to elevate the focus on cross systems coordination and collaboration.  In response to this, CSH, in partnership with the Minnesota Juvenile Justice Advisory Committee, Olmsted County Community Corrections, and YMCA of the Greater Twin Cities, will host a workshop: Understanding the Intersection of Youth Homelessness and Juvenile Justice/Corrections Involvement at the Minnesota Coalition for the Homeless Annual Conference on October 11, 2016.

Additionally, Josephine Pufpaff, CSH Senior Program Manager in Minnesota, has been invited to serve as an adviser to the Center for Juvenile Justice national initiative: Collaborating for Change: Addressing Youth  Homelessness and Juvenile Justice. This project, supported by the Raikes Foundation, the Tow Foundation and the Melville Charitable Trust, has two main goals: (1) to decrease the likelihood that youth experiencing homelessness become involved with the juvenile justice system, and (2) to prevent youth homelessness among justice-involved youth.  In collaboration with project partners the National Network for Youth and the National League of Cities’ Institute for Youth, Education, and Families, the project will generate policy and practice recommendations, training and technical assistance resources, and avenues for greater collaboration across systems.

Using Data to Drive Better Results

Blog by Deb De Santis, President and CEO of CSH

Tom knew that he couldn’t go back to being in jail or homeless. He’d struggled with homelessness and drugs and committed minor crimes to support his addiction. Tom’s last conviction led him to take a serious look at his life. He asked his probation officer for help and found a home through a local program backed by CSH. Tom moved into his new supportive housing apartment and in a short period of time made great strides. He now facilitates county drug court orientations and is employed as the caretaker of his apartment building. Tom is only one of thousands behind the data that demonstrate stable housing can make the difference between success and a cycle of despair for those we can divert from incarceration and those leaving it.

Throughout history, data has galvanized actions that have led to meaningful change. A new initiative from the White House, Data-Driven Justice, will capitalize on that power in order to advance approaches proven to reduce unnecessary incarcerations and avoidable recidivism while improving public safety.

Data-Driven Justice is being launched with a bipartisan coalition of sixty-seven city, county, and state governments committed to using data-driven strategies to divert low-level offenders with mental illness out of the criminal-justice system so they no longer stay in jail simply because they cannot afford a bond. The initiative will focus on efforts that measurably reduce jail populations, help stabilize individuals and families, better serve communities, and often save money in the process.

CSH is proud to be part of Data-Driven Justice. Responding to a White House Call to Action, CSH will assist communities that commit to this effort in designing and implementing housing and support services interventions to divert people from entering jail and pave the way for the successful reintegration of those leaving incarceration. CSH will provide training on key challenges and solutions, offer our expertise in data analysis and reentry, and provide programmatic advice to help communities improve outcomes for those looking for a fresh start.

Through our Frequent User Systems Engagement (FUSE), CSH has years of experience designing, implementing, and evaluating the most effective evidence-based models that enhance chances for successful diversion, reentry and reintegration.

FUSE supportive housing is for individuals with chronic medical or behavioral health challenges who cycle between jails, shelters, and other crisis systems of care. The idea behind FUSE is simple: Give the person diverted from jail or exiting a criminal justice facility a real “second chance” to move forward and become self-sufficient by bolstering their stability and access to the housing, medical, mental health, job training and substance use help they need. Because if we don’t, we’re likely dooming them to a second sentence of a life in poverty, increasing their risks of homelessness, incarceration or recidivism and jeopardizing the public safety of everyone.

FUSE changes this trajectory and offers a better path and outcomes. And since FUSE is an early intervention that follows through on services, data is showing us that participants demonstrate fewer jail days and shelter stays, and there are public cost savings.

FUSE is making its mark across the country. The Connecticut Collaborative on Re-Entry Program (CCR), for example, is a FUSE supportive housing initiative that uses data-driven targeting to identify and serve a set of individuals in Connecticut that repeatedly cycle in and out of the homeless services and correction systems. A few years ago, Mecklenburg County Community Support Services (CSS) leadership was researching effective jail diversion models that would reduce recidivism and save public dollars, and discovered CSH’s FUSE. The county has received national recognition for its MeckFUSE effort.

As we have seen first-hand through FUSE, it has become increasingly important to have accurate, reliable data to help guide us in developing the strongest solutions for ensuring men and women diverting from and also exiting the criminal justice system have access to the services that will help them succeed in their communities.

At its core, data matters because it not only measures progress, it provides direction. Accurate reporting allows us to see where successful policy or programmatic interventions, such as FUSE, are taking root so that we can replicate those successes. In addition, it quantifies the depth and magnitude of persistent gaps to progress and the work that remains to be done.

The drive to follow the data has been years in the making, and building on that progress, the message is clear: We must shift toward data and metrics to find out what works and then encourage replication of programs that are clearly making a difference in our communities.

$1.3M to CSH for Reentry Initiative in L.A. County


Pay for Success Model to Support Permanent Supportive Housing for the Reentry Population

WASHINGTON – For many individuals convicted of minor crimes, finding jobs and decent housing is so challenging that many are at extreme risk of homelessness or reentering the criminal justice system. Today, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) awarded $8.7 million to address homelessness and reduce recidivism among this justice-involved population through the Pay for Success model. See list of grantees below.

HUD’s Pay for Success Permanent Supportive Housing Demonstration, tests cost-effective ways to help persons cycling between the criminal justice and homeless service systems. Funded by DOJ and implemented through a HUD/DOJ partnership, this demonstration advances a model that offers a new source of financing to expand permanent supportive housing for the reentry population. This is part of a broader Administration effort to reduce barriers facing justice-involved individuals who are trying to put their lives back on track, including barriers to housing. Read a White House fact sheet on these efforts.

“Too often, as people leave the criminal justice system, they don’t have the support network to help them get a second chance and they fall into homelessness,” said HUD Secretary Julián Castro. “These grantees have developed successful models that give returning citizens the opportunity to find a job and place to call home while reducing the costs associated with recidivism and homelessness.”

“Every person re-entering society from the justice system deserves a fair shot at a life of renewed purpose and meaning,” said Attorney General Loretta Lynch. “The Justice Department’s partnership with HUD will expand services to help individuals gain access to housing and jobs, and to give those who have served their time a chance to fully rejoin society. Going forward, we intend to continue to promote and develop programs that help our returning citizens stay safe, supported, and secure.”

Secretary Castro made the announcement today at an interagency event led by DOJ at the Center for American Progress.

Research consistently demonstrates a correlation between homelessness and incarceration. The National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH) estimates that one in five people living prison becomes homeless upon reentry into the community, with an increase of 30-50 percent in major urban areas. Tracking the cycle of homelessness and incarceration in the reverse, the Council of States Governments and NAEH report that over 10 percent of people recidivating from jail and prison are homeless in the months before their incarceration. This rate jumps to 20 percent among individuals with a mental illness.

Pay for Success (PFS) strategies are public-private arrangements that help government test or expand innovative programs while paying only for those activities that achieve agreed-upon target outcomes. These grants will support PFS projects that implement a Housing First model for the reentry population who experience homelessness and are frequent users of homelessness, health care and other crisis services.

Established by President Obama, the Federal Interagency Reentry Council includes 20 federal agencies, that work to:

  • make communities safer by reducing recidivism and victimization;
  • assist those who return from prison and jail in becoming productive citizens; and
  • save taxpayer dollars by lowering the direct and collateral costs of incarceration.

The Reentry Council, recently codified by Presidential Memorandum, is removing federal barriers to successful reentry, so that motivated individuals – who have served their time and paid their dues – are able to compete for a job, attain stable housing, support their children and their families, and contribute to their communities. Reentry Council agencies are taking concrete steps to reduce recidivism and high correctional costs while improving public health, child welfare, employment, education, housing and other key reintegration outcomes.

In 2010, President Obama and 19 federal agencies and offices that form the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) launched the nation’s first comprehensive strategy to prevent and end homelessness. Opening Doors: Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness serves as a roadmap for how the federal government will work with state and local communities to confront the root causes of homelessness, including individuals who are in and out of a variety of crisis services such as jails and prisons. Permanent supportive housing lowers public costs by stopping the revolving door between jail and prison and crisis services like those provided in emergency rooms and homeless assistance programs.

PFS Demonstration Grant Summary

Legal Name Award Demonstration Site Location
Corporation for Supportive Housing $1.3 million Los Angeles County, CA
Third Sector Capital Partners, Inc. $1.3 million Eugene/Springfield/Lane County, Oregon
United Way of Anchorage $1.3 million Anchorage/Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska
Rhode Island Coalition for the Homeless,  Inc. $1,297,624 State of Rhode Island
University of Utah $1.3 million Tucson/Pima County, Arizona
American Institutes for Research $1.3 million Montgomery County/Prince George’s County, Maryland
Ending Community Homelessness Coalition, Inc. $881,376 Travis County/Austin, Texas




CSH Urges “Smart” Supportive Housing Strategy for Reentry

Testimony of CSH

New York State Assembly Committee on Correction and Subcommittee on Transitional Services Joint Public Hearing

Devising a Smart Supportive Housing Strategy for Ex-Offenders upon Reentry

My name is Kristin Miller, and I am the Director of the Metro Program at the Corporation for Supportive Housing (CSH). CSH’s mission is to advance solutions that use housing as a platform to deliver services, improve the lives of the most vulnerable people, and build healthy communities. CSH has 25-year track record of innovation and investment in New York, leading demonstration projects, analyzing data and assisting in the creation of over 15 thousand permanent supportive and affordable housing units across the state. CSH is deeply committed to improving access to supportive housing for people with criminal justice histories and has been working in this arena for more than a decade.

An estimated 25,000 people are released from New York State prisons each year and, of these, nearly half return to New York City.[1] Of all the issues facing returning prisoners, the need to secure safe, affordable housing is one of the most essential. Many of those released each year are homeless and have traditionally cycled out of prison and into the shelter system or unlicensed, unregulated three-quarter houses. In fact, analyses of the NYC Department of Homeless Services shelter populations indicate that between 20 and 23% of homeless adults have been incarcerated at some point in the two years prior to entering shelter and about 19 percent of persons released from NY State prisons listed shelters as their first known address. [2],[3]

There is an evidence-based, cost-effective solution. Supportive housing, a model coupling affordable housing and support services, is effective in improving outcomes for this population while also decreasing public systems use. CSH piloted the Frequent Users Services Enhancement (FUSE) initiative here in New York almost 8 years ago, which utilized supportive housing as an intervention for people cycling between the criminal justice system and homeless system. The Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health completed an evaluation of this groundbreaking initiative that placed over 200 individuals into supportive housing. [4] The rigorous evaluation compared the outcomes of FUSE participants versus a comparison group, and demonstrated some major findings impacting the use of jails, shelters and crisis care services.

The evaluation indicates that supportive housing can reduce homelessness, incarceration and costs of public systems. FUSE participants averaged just over two-weeks of shelter stays in the 24 months after placement into housing as compared to the 164 days in shelters spent by the comparison group. Overall FUSE generated a $15,000 cost offset for each participant.

While this model has become a nationally recognized approach and is being implemented in almost 20 communities across the country, here in New York people with criminal justice histories have been shortchanged in every supportive housing production initiative to date, and thus, very few units have been targeted at this population.

In this year’s State of the State address, Governor Cuomo proposed a bold housing plan and committed to creating 20,000 new units of supportive housing over the next 15 years, with 6,000 of the new units to be created over the next 5 years. In order to deliver on this promise, the Governor must sign an MOU with Legislative leadership before the end of session, which is this Thursday, June 16th. Additionally, last September, the Governor adopted the New York State Council on Reentry and Reintegration’s recommendation to “include the formerly incarcerated as a target population for supportive housing”. As such, a portion of the 20,000 new supportive housing units will be targeted to serve this population.

This commitment could effectively stop the cycle of homelessness and criminal justice involvement for the thousands of New Yorkers exiting prisons each year. We ask that Governor Cuomo honor these commitments by signing an MOU before session ends on Thursday, and targets a portion of these units to people exiting the criminal justice system.

[1] NYS DOCCS. 2010. 2007 Releases: Three Year Post Release Follow-up. Albany: New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision.

[2] Burt et al. 1999; Eberle et al. 2001; Kushel et al. 2005; Schlay & Rossi 1992.

[3] Navarro, Mireya. November 14, 2013. Ban on Former Inmates in Public Housing Is Eased. The New York Times.

[4] Aidala, Angela; McAllister, William; Yomogida, Maiko; Shubert, Virginia. 2013. “Reducing Homelessness, Incarceration and Costs through Supportive Housing – The New York City FUSE Evaluation”. Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.

Non-Time Limited Supportive Housing Program for Youth

Request for Proposals for Supportive Housing Providers (RFP)

CSH and the Ohio Department of Youth Services (DYS) seek to pilot the effectiveness of a non-time limited supportive housing program for youth (ages 18-19) exiting DYS facilities in Hamilton and Cuyahoga Counties in order to prevent recidivism.  The pilot program will offer twelve (12) units of supportive housing in each of the two communities, for a total of 24 units of housing.

Target Population
The target population for the DYS Pilot is criminal justice involved young adults released from DYS institutions who are identified as homeless or at risk of homelessness upon release and fall into one of 2 categories: 1) Severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) with or without a co-occurring disorder; 2) a lack of employment history and positive social supports.  Referrals can be accepted for an offender up to 12 months post release. Priority is given to offenders identified as being most likely to require supportive services in order to maintain housing and stability.

Click here to view the RFP.

Click here to view the Annual Budget Form.

Proposals must be submitted by Friday, June 3rd by 5:00pm EST to Katie.kitchin@csh.org.

New Recommendations Released – Call for Fair Treatment for the Formerly Incarcerated

Today, CSH and 16 community partners released a set of recommendations to the New York City Supportive Housing Task Force focused squarely on the overwhelming need to ensure supportive housing for persons with criminal justice histories.

People reentering our communities from incarceration have been shortchanged in every New York State and City supportive housing agreement to date. In the face of incredible barriers, many who have served their time are confronted with a second punishment when they attempt to begin new lives but are denied access to affordable housing and the services they desperately need to stabilize. This sets off a chain of despair that often leads to homelessness, poverty and recidivism.

CSH and its partners know it doesn’t have to be this way. Of all the issues facing returning prisoners, the need to secure stable, affordable housing is one of the most essential, and supportive housing can and should play a crucial role.

Over 77,000 people were released from New York City Department of Corrections’ jails in FY 2015[1] and Mayor Bill de Blasio’s recently announced plan to add 15,000 units of supportive housing to the City provides an unparalleled opportunity to address the needs of the growing numbers of individuals hoping to rebound, rebuild and reestablish in our community.

These collaborative recommendations call for at least 15% of new supportive housing resources to be dedicated to individuals and families with criminal justice histories. CSH and its partners also recommend:

  • targeting criteria to ensure access to housing for people who need it the most
  • policies that bar discrimination and assure equal access to supportive housing for people with criminal justice histories
  • strategies to better develop the referral system for justice-involved populations
  • effective programming structure and service budget guidance

CSH and its partners believe that by including this population in the next supportive housing agreement, the City can expect reductions in recidivism, parole violations, shelter use, and use of crisis services, particularly among those who find their new home in supportive housing.

[1] NYC Mayor’s Office of Operations, Preliminary Fiscal 2015 Mayor’s Management Report